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Jianheng Industrial fire knowledge training

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Chapter I Relevant provisions of the Fire Control Law
Chapter Two Common sense of fire
Chapter III Types and methods of use of fire control equipment
Chapter IV emergency measures after fire

Chapter I Relevant provisions of the Fire Control Law
(1) This Law is enacted for the purpose of preventing fire and reducing fire hazards, protecting the safety of citizens, public property and citizens' property, maintaining public safety and ensuring the smooth progress of socialist modernization.
2, fire work to implement the "prevention first, combined with prevention and elimination" policy, adhere to the principle of combining specialized agencies with the masses, the implementation of fire safety responsibility system.
(3) Any unit or individual has the obligation to maintain fire safety, protect fire control facilities, prevent fire and report fire alarms, and any unit or adult citizen has the obligation to participate in organized fire fighting work.
4. No unit or individual shall damage or arbitrarily appropriate, dismantle or disable fire control facilities and equipment, shall not bury or occupy fire hydrants, shall not occupy fire spacing or block fire control passages.
5. Anyone who finds a fire should call the police immediately. Any unit or individual shall provide convenience to the police free of charge and shall not obstruct the police. False fire alarm is strictly prohibited.
6, in the event of a fire in a public place, the on-site staff of the public place have the obligation to organize and guide the evacuation of the masses.
7, fire units must immediately organize forces to fight the fire.
(8) When a fire occurs in a public place, the on-site staff of the public place fails to fulfill the obligation to organize and guide the evacuation of the people present, resulting in personal injury or death, but not constituting a crime, shall be detained for not more than 15 days.
9. If a violation of this Law constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

Chapter Two Common sense of fire
1. Fire characteristics:
(1) Burning violently, spreading fast. In the workshop and tunnel, the fire is easy to spread along the electrical lines and ventilation pipes, our mine due to the storage of flammable and explosive items more, once these materials are ignited, the fire is extremely fierce, in a short time can form a large area of fire.
(2) Fire casualties. Due to the complex structure in the plant, the evacuation channel is narrow and tortuous, and the safety exit is few, which is not conducive to evacuation. Combustion will produce a large number of high temperature toxic smoke, easy to human poisoning asphyxiation, resulting in huge casualties.
(3) Great economic losses. Due to a large number of materials and equipment in the warehouse and workshop, once a fire occurs, it will cause huge economic losses.
(4) Rescue difficulties. High-rise buildings due to the complexity of the building height, structure and use of nature, fuel and more concentrated, resulting in fast and fierce burning, the most sound and effective organization and modern equipment, can not guarantee the effective and successful extinguishment of high-rise building fire.
2, the occurrence of combustion must have three conditions, namely: combustibles, combustibles and ignition sources.
3. Classification of fire:
Fires are divided into four categories: A, B, C and D. Class A is a solid matter fire, such as wood, cotton, hemp, paper fire, etc. Class B is liquid fire and meltable solid matter fire, such as gasoline, kerosene, crude oil, methanol, ethanol, asphalt, paraffin fire, etc. Class C is gas fire, such as gas, natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen fire, etc. Class D is a metal fire, such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, lithium, aluminum and other fires.
4, the basic measures to stop the fire include:
(1) Control combustible materials and replace flammable or combustible materials with difficult or non-combustible materials.
(2) Isolate the air, and the production of flammable substances should be carried out in closed equipment.
(3) Eliminate the source of fire.
(4) Prevent the spread of fire, build firewalls between buildings, set fire spacing to prevent the expansion of fire.
5, fire extinguishing methods: All fire extinguishing measures are to destroy the combustion conditions that have been generated or to make the combustion reaction disappear, according to the principle of material combustion and the practical experience of fighting fire, there are four basic fire extinguishing methods:
(1) Cooling method: reduce the temperature of the combustion, so that the temperature is lower than the ignition point, and promote the combustion process to stop. Such as using water to put out fires.
(2) Asphyxiation method: reduce the amount of oxygen in the combustion area or use non-combustion substances to dilute the air and extinguish the flame. For example, sand is used to bury the combustion, and carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are used to put out the fire.
(3) Isolation method: the combustion and uncombustion separation. For example, remove combustible, flammable or combustibles near the point of fire.
(4) Suppression method: Let the extinguishing agent participate in the combustion reaction process to interrupt the chain reaction of combustion.

Chapter III Types and methods of use of fire control equipment
1, the type of fire equipment: fire hydrant, dry powder fire extinguisher, sandbox, fire shovel, fire axe, fire hook, emergency lights, evacuation signs, etc.
2. Usage:
(1) Fire hydrant: fire hydrant is a common fire extinguishing facility for extinguishing fires, it is composed of opening valves and water outlets, and equipped with water hose and water gun, when using, the hose will be opened, played straight, one side of the interface is connected to the water outlet, the other side is connected to the water gun, if the hose is too short, you can connect more than one plate.
(2) Portable dry powder fire extinguisher: mainly composed of pressure handle, safety pin, barrel body, nozzle, etc.
The use of portable dry powder fire extinguisher should be carried out at about 3-5 meters away from the combustion material. The operator should first shake the fire extinguisher up and down and remove the safety pin on the opening pressure handle, and then hold the front nozzle root of the spray hose with one hand and press down with the other hand to quickly spray dry powder at the root of the flame. Fire should be put out quickly and thoroughly, do not leave residual fire, in case of reignition. When extinguishing the oil fire, do not impact the liquid surface to prevent the liquid from splashing out, which will bring difficulties to the fire extinguishing.

Chapter IV emergency measures after fire
1. How to organize self-rescue work in case of fire?
The initial fire fighting is carried out in the case of fast spread of fire, large number of personnel and complex fire situation. In the organization and command of fire fighting and self-rescue work, we should adhere to the premise of ensuring the safety of most people. Command must be decisive and action must be swift. Specifically, it is necessary to do a good job in alarm reporting, evacuation and rescue, organizing fire fighting, smoke prevention and exhaust, paying attention to explosion-proof, on-site protection and rescue, communication, logistics support, security and other work.
2, in case of fire, how to alarm?
In the event of a fire, the first thing to do is to pass the fire information to the fire safety management department, the person in charge of the unit, the public security fire brigade and the people who need to evacuate. The obligatory firefighters of all units should actively participate in fighting the initial fire, and when the fire spreads and the fire worsens, they should promptly call the "119" fire alarm phone and send someone to the intersection to meet the fire truck. Pay attention to the following points when dialing:
(1) Clarify the detailed address of the fire unit and the specific fire location;
(2) The nature of the burning substance of the fire unit, such as oil, electrical appliances or cotton fabrics;
(3) the size of the fire;
(4) The name and contact information of the caller.
3. Fire escape method
(1) Rope self-rescue method: If there is a rope at home, one end can be tied directly to the door, window or heavy object on the other end to climb down. In the process, the feet should be twisted into a rope, hands alternately climb down, and try to use gloves, towels to protect the hands.
(2) Creeping forward method: Because the smoke is mostly gathered in the upper space when the fire occurs, you should try to crawl or bend your body close to the ground during the escape process.
(3) towel nose method: the fire smoke has the characteristics of high temperature and high toxicity, once inhaled, it is easy to cause respiratory system burns or poisoning, so the use of wet towels to cover the mouth and nose in evacuation, in order to play a cooling and filtration role.
(4) Quilt protection method: Cover the body with soaked quilts or blankets and cotton coats, determine the escape route and drill through the fire with the fastest speed and rush to the safe area.
(5) Blanket fire insulation method: the blanket and other fabrics are nailed or clamped on the door, and the water is constantly poured to cool it to prevent the intrusion of external flames and smoke, so as to inhibit the spread of the fire and increase the escape time.
(6) Single twist method: Tear sheets, covers or curtains into strips or twist them into a twist, and climb down along the external wall by means of rope escape.
(7) Staircase transfer method: When the fire spreads rapidly from bottom to bottom and the stairs are blocked, residents living in the upper floor can quickly climb to the roof through the tiger window, skylight, etc., and transfer to the stairs of another family or another unit for evacuation.
(8) Bathroom refuge method: When there is no way to escape, you can use the bathroom for refuge, tightly plug the door with a towel, pour water on the ground to cool down, or lie in a bathtub full of water to avoid. But do not drill under the bed, attic, cupboard and other places to take refuge, because these places are more combustible, and easy to gather smoke.
(9) Fire distress method: In the event of a fire, you can call out loudly, knock metal items or throw soft items at the window, balcony or roof, during the day you should wave a bright cloth to send a distress signal, and at night you can wave a flashlight or white cloth to attract the attention of rescue personnel.

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